A Belleville washer, also known as a coned-disc spring, is a conically shaped washer designed to generate a spring force when compressed. These washers are used in various applications to maintain tension, compensate for thermal expansion, and provide shock absorption. They are known for their high load-carrying capacity relative to their compact size and can be stacked to achieve the desired load or deflection characteristics. Belleville washers are utilized in industries like aerospace, automotive, and construction, particularly in applications where maintaining consistent preload is crucial, such as in bolted connections, safety valves, clutches, and brakes, among others. The choice of Belleville washer size, shape, and material depends on the specific needs of the application.